Racial Profiling Ethics Racial profiling is the practice of viewing certain characteristics such as race, ethnicity, religion or national origin as indicators of criminal behavior. It is a practice that has been used by law enforcement officials when targeting specific crimes or those suspected of potentially committing crimes (Pollock, 2012). Police Officers utilize their discretion when deciding whether to stop an individual or not; but, when the Officers beliefs and ideals are immortal or unethical then their judgment may be distorted (Savive, 2012). Racial profiling is the product of unethical and immoral ideals and beliefs in action (Savive, 2012). Racial profiling violates both the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States (U.S.) Constitution. The Fourth Amendment states that individuals have the right to be secure in their persons against unreasonable searches without probable cause. The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees equal protection of the law to all its citizens however; those who are subjugated to racial profiling are not being treated to the same justice and searches as their white counterparts (Head, 2012). For instance, in New York City, Police Officers conduct stop and frisk of pedestrians (Spitzer, 1999). Stop and frisk occurs when an officer detains an individual and runs his hands over the individuals outer garments to determine whether that person is carrying a concealed weapon. A 1999 study revealed that Blacks were targeted a majority of the time but only 10.5 percent resulted in arrest. Whites however, were targeted the least amount of times but resulted in the greatest percentage of arrest at 12.6 percent (Spitzer, 1999). When New York City Police Officers relied solely on racial profiling, they found weapons less frequently on the racial groups that they profiled. Racial profiling becomes a less effective way of targeting suspected criminals and decreases the overall mission. Racial profiling actually diverts the Officers attention from using actual, objective signs of suspicious behavior to effectively assess situations (ACLU, 2010). Many Americans would agree that racial profiling is wrong and immoral. They would even agree that individuals should not be targeted as suspected criminals simply because of their race. But, many of these same Americans would agree to racial profiling if the focus was on catching suspected terrorist. However, when law enforcement officials concentrate on those of Muslim or Arab heritage they miss a lot of prospective terrorist. Just as focusing solely on African Americans as drug traffickers, law enforcement would fail to focus on the individuals who are transporting and selling drugs (mainly White Americans). When the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was bombed, law enforcement officials immediately began focusing on Arab Americans when the perpetrator actually ended up being Timothy McVeigh, a young white male who was an Army veteran (CNN, 2001). Law enforcement continues to focus on those of Arab or Muslim decent when tracking terrorist but has not extended their profiles to include young white male veterans. Why not? Another young white American who would not have been caught utilizing racial profiling is John Walker Lindh. Mr. Lindh had joined Al Qaeda, fought with Taliban soldiers, and was captured in Afghanistan along with two other American men by American Soldiers (CNN, 2001). Mr. Lindh nor his two co-conspirators were not and would not have been stopped or detained through racial profiling even though they were members of a terrorist organization. They had even made statements in support of the September (9/11) bombing of the World Trade Centers. A more effective means of profiling would be behavioral profiling. Law enforcement officials should look for behaviors that do not fit a particular environment. Ronald Burns (2009) alludes to those in security looking for things that do not fit. For example, someone waiting to go through security checks at the airport who is sweating profusely even though it is cold; those who are walking in a manner which may lead you to suspect that they are wearing an explosive belt; or some other bulky item underneath their clothes which interferes with the way they are walking. According to Yuval Bezherano, Vice President of New Age Security Solutions, this behavioral pattern recognition which is modeled after methods used in Israel is much more effective and could be taught (Burns, 2009). This method was used to catch Anne-Marie Murphy, an Irish female who was five months pregnant and carrying explosives in her carryon bag even though she had previously cleared three security checkpoints at Londons Heathrow Airport (Burns, 2009). The Security Guards questioned why a woman so far along in her pregnancy would be traveling without a companion and where would she be staying? Anne-Marie provided the name of the Hilton Hotel in Bethlehem which did not exist at that time. Behavioral profiling instead of racial profiling is more effective because terrorist organizations often recruit outside of their race to individuals or groups who are sympathetic to their cause and who can elude racist profiles (Harcourt, 2006). The three White American men captured in Afghanistan working with Al Qaeda serves as an example. One can only imagine the harm these individuals could have caused had the Military not caught them since they were not listed as terrorist. To further their cause, Al Qaeda will collaborate with other nationalities to circumvent the tendencies that the American law enforcement officials have of utilizing racial profiling. Studies on racial profiling confirm that it is a less effective way of apprehending would be criminals or terrorist; it alienates officers with the very members of the community who could help them (Head, 2012). Racial profiling is a blatant violation of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments yet it is commonly used by Law Enforcement as a tool for targeting suspected criminals regardless of whether the individuals are actually engaged in criminal activities. Individuals are subjected to unlawful search and seizures based upon their ethnicity, not upon their behaviors. We have seen that those of color are treated differently from their white counterparts. When White America is subjected to the same biases of racial profiling then, we will see an end to this violation of the U.S. Constitution. Law enforcement official would do better and probably be more successful should they adopt behavioral profiling instead of racial profiling as a more reliable means of apprehending would-be criminals and terrorist. References ACLU. (2010, June 29). Racial profiling is ineffective, distracting, and detrimental to public safety. Retrieved September 28, 2012, from American Civil Liberties Union: http://www.aclu.org/print/blog/racial-justice/racial-profiling-ineffective-distracting-and-detrimental-public-safety Burns, R. G. (2009). Critical issues in criminal justice. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall. CNN. (2001, March 29). Special Forces: Timothy McVeigh. Retrieved November 28, 2010, from CNN U.S.: http://articles.cnn.com/2001-03-29/us/profile.mcveigh_1_timothy-mcveigh-oklahoma-city-bombing-religion-basic-training-fort-bragg/2?_s=PM:US CNN, N. (2001, December 19). John Walker Lindh profile: The case of the Taliban American. Retrieved November 28, 2012, from People in the news: http://www.cnn.com/CNN/Programs/people/shows/walker/profile.html Harcourt, B. E. (2006). Muslim profiles 9/11: Is racial profiling an effective counterterrorist measure and does it violate the right to be free from discrimination? Chicago: The Law School University of Chicago. Head, T. (2012, April 09). Why racial profiling is a bad idea: Top 7 arguments against racial profiling. Retrieved October 04, 2012, from About.Com Civil Liberties: http://civilliberty.about.com/od/lawenforcementterrorism/tp/Against-Racial-Profiling.htm Pollock, J. M. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas Decisions in Criminal Justice (7th Edition). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Savive, W. (2012, January 12). Dimensions of racial profiling institutionalized racism in the U.S. Retrieved November 28, 2012, from Savives Corner: http://willsavive.blogspot.com/2012/01/dimensions-of-racial-profiling.html Spitzer, E. (1999). The New York City Police Department stop and frisk practices: A report to the people of New York. New York: Attorney General of the State of New York.
12/27/2019 0 Comments
Teaching methods and strategy - Essay Example It evolves and conforms according to the imagination and opinion of the teacher. The teacher is provided with numerous techniques that can be applied in ensuring that the learners comprehend and utilize the accumulated and assimilated knowledge. Such strategies and methods include gaming quizzes, lectures, class discussion, story and role playing, brainstorming, active learning, distance learning, and case method. The current society requires learners who are creative, proactive, and flexible in communicating ideas and thoughts, making decisions, and working effectively within groups and teams. Possessing knowledge is not enough to succeed or make a difference in the current ever-changing world; teachers have a crucial role in moulding learners to fit and be competitive through application of effective teaching methods and strategies. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of each of the stipulated methods is presented with a suggestion of the most effective level of applicability. Gaming Quizzes Games are used to enhance competition, participation, and feedback during teaching (Accardi, Drabinski and Kumbier, 2010). They serve as a motivator and entail practical application of learning concepts. The technique is efficiently applicable when teaching children and primary level learners. In gaming quizzes, the expatriates are actively involved in the exercise. This frustrates boredom and enhances motivation and positive attitudes towards learning. Gaming promotes team work and application of collaborative efforts towards solving educational problems. The trainers are able to obtain feedback on learning progress of the expatriate candidates instantly. Practical application of theoretical concepts in the form of games instils confidence among learners in acquiring education facts. However, gaming quizzes can discourage learners who are not competitive compared to their colleagues. Gaming may lead to rivalry and unhealthy relationship among competing groups. Most members would shun creativity and device short cuts or crude methods to secure victory as most of the games are focused towards winning. Another weakness is that team work may derail the application of individual efforts. Lecture Lecture method entails the teacher solely controlling the core focus of information transfer. The instructor normally positions him or herself in front of a class and presents educational facts to the students who are listening and taking notes. Occasionally, teachers use a board or overhead projector to provide visuals to the learners. The method is normally common at all levels of learning although the use of visuals is common with higher levels of learning. Minimal exchange exists between the instructors and students in this learning method. When preparing for a lecture, the instructor should have a clear introduction and summary of the topic of discussion (Lang and Evans, 2006). Lectures should also be presented in the form of summary with time utility. The message being relayed is made clearer through the use of examples and anecdotes. Lectures are advantageous in that the proceedings of a lecture session can be recorded for future reference. The method is a fast and straight forward way of relaying knowledge to a large,
Any company needs a system of control and measurement. This is all the more true in the food industry, wherein the expected output is not only about taste or profitability, but also on several factors that could cause a multitude of praise or problems such as quality of service, effective controls, innovative product mix, brand image, etc (Profitable Tips For All Restaurant Owner, by Kevin Moll).
Although the restaurant operations group, central office, administrative support, and upper management are all expected to be calibrated and to work in harmony, this type of business requires a funnel point, or local management whose role to act remotely on behalf of, but in full calibration with, upper management in terms of policy implementation, achieving store targets, local marketing, and other operational tasks.
This funnel point is the Restaurant Manager (Ninemeier, Jack D. ; Hayes, David K. (2006). Restaurant Operations Management: Principles and Practices. Upper Saddle River, N. J: Pearson Prentice Hal). In recent years, it has been a recurring problem of the Shakeyâ€™s Philippines operations team that some of the Restaurants have not been meeting its target Quality, Service, Cleanliness, and Hospitality (QSCH) Score and Profitability Goals (Based on the 2012 Audit Scores).
Although several initiatives have been rolled out to coach each employeeâ€™s performance, the consistency of the storeâ€™s QSCH scores and the achievement of target profitability have been directly linked with the performance of the respective Restaurant Manager (Store QSCH Score is included in Restaurant Managerâ€™s total Performance Appraisal rate). Although coaching initiatives and continuous improvement programs have been launched and maintained, the problem resurfaces when attrition happens.
Whether the attrition is expected or unexpected, the fact is that new talent coming in, either from the outside or from within, will always face the same pitfalls and challenges, plus problems that have been newly developed or caused by the failure of the previous local management handling the store; this causes the aforementioned coaching and continuous improvement initiatives to be re-implemented and relearned, ending and beginning this loop again with attrition, even slowing down the effectiveness of improvement initiatives.
The process of learning and relearning, which is highly dependent on the Restaurant Managersâ€™ cognitive ability, makes the difference when dealing with this loop(Schmidt, Hunter, and Outerbridgeâ€™s (l986)Â causal model of job performance); it defines how much the Restaurant and, consequentially, the store itself can progress from the loop and continuously improve on its operational performance.
This study aims to understand the significance and relation of the Restaurant Managersâ€™ cognitive ability on the achievement of store objectives, and to address such problems. Background of the study Schmidt, Hunter, and Outerbridgeâ€™s causal model of job performance suggests that cognitive ability is the most important cause of job performance and that the relationship between ability and performance is stable over time (Development of a Causal Model of Processes Determining Job Performance, Frank L Schmidt and John E.
Hunter). Though there is a lack of studies that specifically discusses the impact or effect of Restaurant Managersâ€™ cognitive ability on the store performance, the scope of the universal model developed by Schmidt, Hunter, and Outerbridge could be used for restaurant industry. There are three factors to consider, before discussing the relationship between the Restaurant Managersâ€™ cognitive ability and the performance of the stores the Managers respectively handle: 1.
The Restaurant Managerâ€™s Duties and Responsibilities needed to be accomplished, as well as targets to be achieved; 2. The Restaurant Managerâ€™s Personal and Technical Competencies needed prior to placing any candidate, external or internal, into this position; 3. The current average and modal store performance in a given sample population versus the scores of the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests taken by the Restaurant Managers who run the stores in the sample population.
The first two factors are found in the Restaurant Managerâ€™s Job Description, which differs from company to company, while the third factor will be based on actual data from the sample population within a prescribed performance appraisal period alongside the last known IQ test scores of the respective Restaurant Managers. The first two factors are what will be used to describe, respectively, the current deliverables expected from all Restaurant Managers, and who the ideal Restaurant Manager should be as well as the capabilities in running store operations effectively.
From the analysis of this information we can further elaborate the significance of measuring cognitive ability for prospective Restaurant Managers for screening purposes, as well as current Restaurant Managers for continuous improvement and internal screening purposes. The third factor shall be used to analyze the current relationship between the Restaurant Managersâ€™ cognitive ability and their respective storeâ€™s performance.
The analysis will include possible trends to further reinforce or debunk any possible relationships. Objectives of the study â€¢ To identify the relationship of Restaurant Managersâ€™ cognitive ability and achievement of store objectives â€¢ To determine the acceptable level of applicantâ€™s IQ in hiring or promoting Restaurant Managers â€¢ To recommend either changes or retention in assessment tools to accurately determine the cognitive ability of prospective Restaurant Managers Significance of the study
This study, if used in similar contexts, may be used as follows: â€¢ To improve company selection processes, either to reinforce or debunk current practices of measuring job applicantsâ€™ Intelligence Quotients; â€¢ To create more focused people development strategies, either more or less focus on increasing employeesâ€™ cognitive abilities; â€¢ To reinforce or debunk the relevance of cognitive abilities on employeesâ€™ job performance, to gauge employeesâ€™ and applicantsâ€™ capabilities to take on certain responsibilities; and â€¢ To properly plan and create succession plans and manpower requests within organizations.
Scope and limitations For the purpose of this study, the Job Description, performance data, and IQ test scores to be studied will be those of the Restaurant Managers of company-owned Shakeyâ€™s branches, covering Manila areas only. It shall not include data from Franchisee-owned branches and the Restaurant Managers running these branches. This study shall also cover data from Restaurant Managers who have run their respective, company-owned stores for at least one year.
This is to ensure the integrity of the data, and factor out possible cultural and functional adjustment periods brought about by new-hire status, lack of experience of newly-promoted Managers, newly-built store locations, and other similar scenarios. As such, data from Restaurant Managers of company-owned stores within the sample population whose tenure is less than the period prescribed in this study shall not be included. The IQ test results to be considered shall be those taken using the proprietary internally-developed IQ test only, and will not include results from any previous IQ tests.
It must be noted that this test is used on all Restaurant Managers screened either for hiring or for promotion within all locations of Shakeyâ€™s Philippines, and its norms have been based on the current manpower of the company, across all levels and departments. Therefore, this IQ test is, for the purpose of this study, valid. Convenient Sampling Method shall be used for this study, both due to logistical limitations, as well as evening-out the sample population.
It should also be noted that this study shall also take into context several factors that could have an effect on the success or failure of any given establishment aside from the Restaurant Managerâ€™s cognitive ability, such as personal competencies, values, and the working experience of the Restaurant Manager. Whichever outcome and results may arise, this study does not denote that the storeâ€™s performance is solely or definitively dependent on the Restaurant Managerâ€™s cognitive ability.
The definition of Cognitive Ability is taken from Dr. Pascale Michelon, (Author of Max Your Memory and the Founder of Memory Practice). Cognition is how a person understands the world; it is a set of abilities, skills, or processes that are part of nearly human action. Cognitive abilities are the brain-based skills we need to carry out any task, from the simplest to the most complex. Dr.
Michelon states that cognitive ability has more to do with the mechanisms of how we learn, remember, solve problems, and pay attention rather than with any actual knowledge. It refers to the individualâ€™s capacity to comprehend, think, reason and solve problems (What is a Cognitive Ability/What are Cognitive Abilities and Skill, 2006). The hospitality sector is known to have the highest employee turnover rate among all other industries (The Economic Times, Highest Attrition in Hospitality and Aviation Sectors Survey, April 2012).
The Human Resources (HR) departments of companies in this sector are required to hire talents who can adjust immediately to their new working environment and possess the ability to learn, continue, and finish the tasks left by the person previously holding the vacated post in the soonest possible time, with minimal training and supervision provided (Copyright 2003-2006Â www. iBizResources. com). This also holds true in Shakeyâ€™s Philippines where Restaurant Managers leave the company either for opportunities outside the country or because of better offers from competitors.
Shakeyâ€™s Philippines has an estimated 8% turnover rate for the Restaurant Manager employees in 2012 (Data Collected from Shakeyâ€™s HROD). Given this situation, it is important for Shakeyâ€™s Philippines, as with any other company facing similar dilemmas, to implement programs and initiatives that will counter the negative effects of this attrition. To better understand the impact of a Restaurant Manager on an organization in the Food industry, analysis of the Restaurant Managerâ€™s job scope is needed.
The main duties and responsibilities of a Restaurant Manager of Shakeyâ€™s Philippines are as follows: 1. Oversee overall operations of the restaurant including personnel management, stocks and inventory management, maintenance management and other administrative function 2. Develop and implement Local Store Marketing strategies, and ensure proper implementation of company wide marketing promotions 3. Ensure proper implementation and compliance to company controls and standards 4.
Solve problems and decide on critical issues concerning but not limited to customer complaints, employee related conflicts, administrative cases, store accidents, decreasing sales due to strong competition, equipment breakage, delayed delivery of raw materials, etc. 5. People Development For Restaurant Managers to effectively carry out these responsibilities, certain abilities are required to be identified in prospective internal and external candidates. The Qualifications and Skills of a Restaurant Manager of Shakeyâ€™s Philippines are as follows: 1.
Ability to set goals and implement sales building initiatives to ensure achievement of the target sales 2. Ability to use benchmarking and trade area awareness as analysis tools. Can analyze sales trends and performance. a. Has the ability to identify business opportunities within his trade areas b. Has the ability to study competitors within his areas and implement improvements to ensure his store is at par with his competitors, c. Is constantly calibrated with the best practices of the industry, which are to be implemented and practiced in the respective store 3.
Ability to plan, direct, monitor, organize, control the restaurant financial resources. a. Has the ability to conduct profit and loss analysis and easily spot discrepancies in financial reports. b. Can determine factors affecting contributing to high cost efficiently. c. Can implement action plans and preventive measures to ensure a sound operational cost d. Can manage restaurant cost to acceptable level, and can create ways and means in managing cost. 4. Can implement and monitor quality standards in the store.
Has the ability to consistently achieve an excellent QSCH Audit Result. 5. Ability to develop team capabilities. a. Has the ability to energize and inspire his team, and work towards the common goals. b. Has the ability to train his management team on various restaurant system (inventory, cash control, workforce planning, etc) 6. Ability to develop and implement effective local store marketing that boost sales and build brand 7. Has the ability to develop and implement effective merchandising techniques
All these qualifications and skills are most likely to be present in people with higher cognitive abilities, based on Dr. Michelonâ€™s abovementioned definition of cognitive ability. Cognitive ability plays a major role in learning new systems and operations, as well as making correct actions in each problematic situation that people encounter at their respective workplace. This particular ability helps newly hired employees perform well in their recently acquired roles, enabling them to hit the ground running (Development of Causal Model of Processed Determining Job Performance, Frank L Schmidt, John E.
Hunter). Schmidt, Hunter, and Outerbridgeâ€™s Causal Model of job performance suggests that cognitive ability is the most important cause of job performance; that it is the primary determinant of job performance, and that the influence of this ability either remains stable or increases over time. Further analysis has suggested that cognitive ability retains its influence on the employee well-past the initial stage of employment, when incumbents are learning how o do their jobs, and is still a major contributing factor for job performance measurement among more senior job incumbents. Cognitive ability enables incumbents to acquire and apply job knowledge, and is also related to the employeeâ€™s ability to solve novel problems and to make appropriate judgement in situations where routine procedures do not apply; this will be most important in situations where the employee must learn new procedures or techniques, or where novel problems or job demands require sound judgement calls from the employee.
It is necessary, then, to hire Restaurant Manager replacements with high levels of intelligence; without the ability to adapt quickly towards their new working environment, new-hiresâ€™ and employers alike will be facing problems such as losing profitability to lost opportunity cost. This is especially true in Shakeyâ€™s Philippines, as it is so for all restaurant companies, whose profitability is dependent on their Restaurant Managersâ€™ performance.
Reshaping Toledo The physical and symbolic transformation of the medieval city after the Christian conquest of 1085 - Essay Example
This paper not only concentrates on the physical patterns that underwent changes during the transitional period, but also focuses on the several changes which cast their strong influences in human psyche of this place. It talks about the history of the city itself, the quintessential aspects of its transformation through the centuries, the effect of repopulation of the al-Andalusia region during the long years of the Reconquista and the people representing a large melting pot of various cultures and creeds, namely Christians, the Muslims and the Jewish minorities, who inhabited the city.
The city being one of the most happening centers of physical, religious and cultural transformation has been the interest of a large number of archaeologists and historians, who tried to bring out the subtle tones of color representing the gradual change in the nature of the city, the outlook of the people and their social standing with respect to each other. This is a fact that these changes effected over a long period of time throughout the reign of Alfonso VI and continuing aftermath slowly imparted the final tones of color to the city whose traces can be linked even today. If we retrospect the entire history of medieval Spain and not just the city of Toledo, which was an integral part of the al-Andalus governed by the Islamic supremacy and the Berber regimes of Almohads and Almoravids, we would procure a tale of both oppression and tolerance throughout the entire period of change from the Islamic supremacy to Christian power. The chronicles that record this transformation also speaks of the slow change in the lives of the people, the Christians and the Muslims along with the minorities, mostly the Jews, because reshaping of the city was also brought about by the changes in the religious and social scenario. It led to the mingling of different ritualistic practices among the Spanish population. This paper will focus on the Spanish mediaeval history when all these transformations took place giving birth to a multicultural milieu of Toledo. Reshaping Toledo is the main subject of this paper. Throughout the discussion, we shall try to examine in what sense the city was reshaped. There are different schools of thought who have said different things on whether the Muslim era in Toledo had its serious effect. This paper will also throw some light on whether the Christian era after Reconquest in the city was able to bring valuable changes to the city scenario. Regaining the power over Spanish states was a great achievement for the Christians, but our discussion will try to evaluate this reign's actual influences on the physical, religious and symbolic aspects of Toledo. It might be noted that Medieval Spain went through several torments as the Christians showed up a constant fight to clinch power from the hand of Muslims. The Spanish battlefield remained a happening place throughout the medieval era and the crusade started at the point when the Muslims had their control almost all through the Western Europe. European continent was ruled by the Muslims from the beginning of the 8th century and they continued spreading until hindered by the exploits of Charles the Hammer. Defeat of the Muslim power in the Pyrenees resulted in their settlement in the
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.